Are you thinking about buying a new phone battery and want to know what it is made of? In this article I will review for you both what a lithium-ion battery is, and what it is made of. It is critical for you to know what lithium-ion batteries are because you encounter them every day. They are in cell phones, and Bluetooth’s, computers and many other everyday devices. Li-ion batteries are known for having low self-discharging and thus, are growing in popularity in the military and aerospace applications.
A Lithium-Ion battery is a type rechargeable battery. Lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharging and charging. Li-ion batteries use a lithium compound as one electrode material.
The chemistry of Li-ion batteries varies across both purpose of application and Li-ion types. Li-ion batteries used in handheld electronics are based on lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2). This chemistry allows for high-energy density but is also associated with safety risks. The other types of chemistry used in Li-ion batteries includes: Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LiMn2O4), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide(LiNiMnCoO2). These compositions are used in electric tools and other types of equipment because they are associated with lower energy densitys and longer lives.
So, what are the components of a Li-ion battery? The three core components are the negative and positive electrodes and electrolytes. The negative electrode is typically made of carbon while the positive electrode is made of a metal oxide. The electrolyte comprises a type of lithium salt contained in an organic solvent. These components control the current flow through the cell and the electrodes will reverse between the anode and the cathode.
What is a negative electrode and a positive electrode? A negative electrode is graphite. A positive electrode is made of either a polyanion (lithium iron phosphate), a spinel (lithium manganese oxide), or a layered oxide (lithium cobalt oxide). An electrolyte is composed of a mixture of lithium ions and organic carbonates. Organic carbonates are ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate.
Lithium-ion batteries constitute an elevated risk for explosions and fires since they contain a flammable electrolyte. Hence, if a battery is charged too quickly, it could short circuit and cause disaster. Another common issue is a battery becoming overcharged and is thrust into a higher electrical amount than it can handle. Due to these ricks the testing conditions and battery tests have become much stricter. Researchers are currently on the lookout for an alternate Li-ion battery that will allow for a longer life extension, cost reduction, and reliable safety. Aqueous lithium-ion batteries show high promise do to their lack of safety hazards and the use of non-flammable electrolytes. As technology advances there is a higher chance that a more suitable alternative to Li-ion batteries will appear.